NR 3/2004 – Kultura alternatywna - przeszłość czy kontynuacje?
Wersja elektroniczna numerów archiwalnych powstała w wyniku współpracy z Biblioteką Elbląską im. Cypriana Norwida (http://www.bibliotekaelblaska.pl/).
Teorie i interpretacje
- Album muzyczny „Sto lat undergroundu” jako tekst kultury alternatywnejIn his discussion of the album of Kury – a band belonging to so-called jass-scene – the author analyses three basic components of its ideological and aesthetic message: cover, music and lyrics. Each of the above elements is related to so-called ‘dominant culture’ whose presumptions are presented in the first part of the article. The alternative character of the album, reflected by both: music and cover, is due to the fact that it radically differs from the aesthetics dominating Polish music market. The alternative character of the verbal component of the album bases on direct critique of the ‘dominant culture’ and stiff resistance towards it.Teatr alternatywny - próba definicji zjawiska z perspektywy zdesperowanego kulturoznawcyThe author aims at defining the notion of ‘alternative theatre’ founding her argument not on the opposition: alternative theatre – institutional theatre, but on sociological research on alternative culture and society. At the same time she reconstructs some discussions of theatre theoreticians and practitioners concerning the notion of the ‘alternative’ in theatre. The article ends with an overview of groups and performances crucial for the alternative theatre after 1989.Współczesność jako źródło cierpień czyli analiza świata przedstawionego w teatrze alternatywnymThe article aims at characterising Polish alternative theatre of the nineties. On the basis of several performances the author reconstructs the world presented and the idea of human being as perceived by alternative theatre artists. Moreover, the historical and ideological relations of the modern theatre to the student theatre of the seventies are discussed.Percepcja parataktylna w teatrach awangardowych Włodzimierza Staniewskiego i Leszka MądzikaThe article discusses a new way of communication, called paratactile (haptic), that appears in modern avant-garde theatre originating in the theatre of Antoin Artaud. The basis of this communication is magic thinking and perception described by Florian Znaniecki as ‘mystical solidarity’. The idea of paratactile communication lies in transposing in the consciousness of an actor and a viewer iconic images and rhetorical figures to sensory impressions. Examples of this type of communication, analysed later in the article, can be found in the theatre practices of Staniewski and Mądzik.Federacja Zielonych jako przykład alternatywnego ruchu ekologicznegoThe article describes the activity of the Green Federation (FZ), which from its very origins (1988) till today, has defined its character as alternative and counter-cultural. Within the Polish ecological movement therefore, FZ is perceived as a unique organisation. The author concentrates on the evolution of FZ and its history. He analyses the programme and some major actions of FZ. A separate part of the text is concentrated on the question of why one of the biggest ecological groups in Poland in nineties has been lately so strongly marginalised.Ideologia twórców Internetu i jej wpływ na środowisko ruchu na rzecz otwartego kodu źródłowegoThe article presents the specificity of the communities acting for free and open source software in the context of the history of the Internet and the ideology of the first creators of computer networks. The descriptions of differences between free and open source software movements are complemented by the data concerning motivation and demography of their participants.Hip hop, czyli czy rewolucja jest blisko?Few years ago no one imagined that rap music could enter the Polish music scene. Both culturally and politically engaged, rap music was the voice of revolt and opposition of African Americans against the white authority. In Poland, it became the voice of the young generation living in a democratic country.Kultura alternatywna - przeszłość czy kontynuacje ?Treść pojęcia „kultura alternatywna” którym posługiwały się społeczności alternatywne lat siedemdziesiątych uległa zmianom wraz z głębokimi przemianami politycznymi i kulturowymi jakie zaszły w końcu XXw. W artykule tym polemizuję z tezą iż w globalizującym się świecie ponowoczesnym pojęcie „kultury dominującej” straciło sens. W rzeczywistości współczesnej opisuje ono nowe podziały i ujawnia nowe problemy społeczne. Ruchy alternatywne XXI w. są bardzo zróżnicowane, zarówno ze względu na zainteresowania, rodzaje więzi i strategie działania jak i stopień radykalizmu. Zaliczam do nich wszelkie społeczności odkrywające nowe formy dominacji kulturowej i wykluczenia lub też braki, „puste miejsca” tam, gdzie kultura dostarczać powinna odpowiedzi na ważne, egzystencjalne pytania. Kulturę alternatywną tworzą więc grupy wielorakie - od radykalnych odłamów ruchów alterglobalizacyjnych, poprzez różne rodzaje grup twórczych do wspólnot o charakterze religijno-terapeutycznych. Cechą charakterystyczną i najważniejszą jest tu praktyka rozumiana nie jako dążenie do rewolucyjnej zmiany, lecz podjęcie jakiejś próby kreowania własnego świata w ramach istniejącego układu.Capoeira w PolsceThe article describes the appearance of capoeira – the Brazilian art of dance/fight – in Poland and the role of the media in popularisation of this phenomenon. The author presents the process of formation of a group of practitioners in its hierarchical order and how it functions as a community of regularly meeting participants who communicate via internet. The activity of the group is depicted as an example of creative self-development.Kultury alternatywne i konsumpcjaAlternative cultures are perceived in the article as a by-product of the modernising processes of Western societies. Contrarily to their marginal status, alternative cultures have played a very important role in complementing the processes in which it originated. Alternative cultures saved the capitalist system from the barrier of growth generated by too homogenous structure of individual needs; they saved the democratic system from the danger of autocracy and violence; finally they saved culture from numbing. A very crucial role in this course of events was played by consumption processes, usually treated as one of the major threat, against which alternative cultures fight. The author argues for the contrary. According to him consumption has always been an integral element of every alternative culture. It was via the consumption goods that the representatives of these movements have communicated with the rest of the society. It was for the consumption goods that expression of their programmes and ideas was made possible. At the same time subversive usage of commodities has become one of the most effective methods of opposing the existing rules of social life. By doing so – opposing by consuming – not only was the process of consumption de-totalised, but also everyday life became political. This meant realising that everyday routine and normal activities have become as important a manifestation of our philosophy of living as purely political activities. Under the influence of alternative cultures both the logic of one of central social processes – production and consumption of commodities – has been changed and there has appeared the necessity for the change of the whole social system. Moreover, more attention has been paid to political potential of the ways of using commodities.Riot Grrrls. Alternatywna kultura młodych kobietThe article describes the Riot Grrrls movement developed at the beginning of the nineties in the United States and later spread across Europe and South America. The Riot Grrrls movement was established within punk culture by young women – 3rd wave feminists – who have opposed stereotypical representations of females in the media as well as sexism in music and advertisement. With the use of their songs Riot Grrrls have decided to create their own channels of communication. The article presents some basic assumptions and characteristics of the movement both in the USA and in Poland.O tak zwanej muzyce alternatywnejThe theoretical interpretation of the notion of ‘alternative culture’ referring to the logical alternating of adequate cultural rules does not agree with its common understanding. The latter has been created by the tradition of counter-culture. The criterion for distinguishing alternative music is therefore ideological and not technical. Among its genetic determinants Afro-American and dance music plays particularly important role, though newer forms of alternative music refer to West European artistic music. The great triumph of this type of music can be explained by the fact that it fulfils the need for artistic valorisation of the view of the world in times of lowering of the ideological compatibility of society, and diminishing of the general level of musical and artistic competence. That is why, alternative music substitutes the art of music on a social scale.Status idei humanistyki jako nauki po krytyce postmodernistycznejEsej o wolnej improwizacjiThe article analyses aesthetic assumptions of free improvisation – a manner of performing music developed within European scene of improvised music. Having presented the history of free improvisation and having introduced the most frequently used categories describing it, the author offers an interpretation of a development of avant-garde music in the second half of the 20th century and tries to employ the category of ‘performativity’ to delineate free improvisation. The category of ‘performativity’ allows not only for including free improvisation within the discourse on composing and performing a musical piece but also for showing that free improvisation does not oppose composition, as is often claimed, but rather undermines the distinction between composing and performing.
Z warsztatów młodych kulturoznawców
- Ciało i maska w teatrzePresenting the “theatrical phenomenon as the phenomenon of incarnation” the article pays particular attention to the role of the mask (including make-up). Masks used in modern theatre originate both in anthropological masks – used on all five continents for numerous religious rites – and in traditional theatrical masks. Present for centuries not only in the theatre but also in all performing arts, masks have had different meanings, functions and forms. In modern European theatre the decisive moment for the return of the mask was the Great Reform and changes in stage-design it provoked. It was under the influence of the reformers Jacques Copeau and Jacques Lecoqa that Ariane Mnouchkine – the creator and manager of French troupe Théâtre du Soleil – adopted the tradition of mask and made it the essential means of practice in her troupe.Motyw diabła w kulturze jako alegoria potrzeb egzystencjalnychThe myth of the devil, deeply inscribed in our consciousness, has always played an important role in European culture. It represents and explains in an allegorical manner many of our existential needs. Some of them are presented in this article. The figure of the devil both helps us to deal with tormenting responsibility for evil and frees us from the awareness of being its source and creators. The motive of the fallen angel expresses the need for activity and the feeling of authorship – it shows how the lack of creative activity transforms into destruction. Moreover, the devil incarnates the unacceptable dark side of human nature. Being the personification of the inexplicable source of fear, he helps us to overcome it. Finally, the devil is a response to our innermost dreams, such as longing for Arcadia. He promises to those, desperate in quest for happiness, the substitute of Paradise on Earth.